Python 调用 shell 命令行程序


# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import glob  
import subprocess

files = glob.iglob(r'./*.csv')

for f in files:"enca -L zh_CN " + f, shell=True)

for f in files:"enca -L zh_CN -x utf-8 " + f, shell=True)

Python 实现解释器命令行中自动补全


import readline, rlcompleter; readline.parse_and_bind("tab: complete")

方法二新建一个 的脚本, 然后在 .bashrc 中加入 export PYTHONSTARTUP = ~/
import readline, rlcompleter 
readline.parse_and_bind("tab: complete")

最后执行 source .bashrc 生效. 然后在解释器中使用 tab 就会是自动补全了, 不再是一个缩进!缩进只能使用四个空格;



下面的表格展示了使用Python的后起新秀str.format()格式化数字的多种方法,包含浮点数格式化与整数格式化示例。可使用 print("FORMAT".format(NUMBER)); 来运行示例,因此你可以运行: print("{:.2f}".format(3.1415926)); 来得到第一个示例的输出。

    数字  格式  输出  描述
    3.1415926   {:.2f}  3.14    保留小数点后两位
    3.1415926   {:+.2f} +3.14   带符号保留小数点后两位
    -1  {:+.2f} -1.00   带符号保留小数点后两位
    2.71828 {:.0f}  3   不带小数
    5   {:0>2d} 05  数字补零 (填充左边, 宽度为2)
    5   {:x<4d} 5xxx    数字补x (填充右边, 宽度为4)
    10  {:x<4d} 10xx    数字补x (填充右边, 宽度为4)
    1000000 {:,}    1,000,000   以逗号分隔的数字格式
    0.25    {:.2%}  25.00%  百分比格式
    1000000000  {:.2e}  1.00e+09    指数记法
    13  {:10d}          13  右对齐 (默认, 宽度为10)
    13  {:<10d} 13  左对齐 (宽度为10)
    13  {:^10d}     13  中间对齐 (宽度为10)


import sys

def is_packaged():
    if hasattr(sys, 'frozen'):
        return sys.frozen

    return False

def get_root():
    return sys._MEIPASS
from . import pyinstaller

def get_mclouds_root():
    if pyinstaller.is_packaged():
        return pyinstaller.get_root()

    cur_path = os.path.dirname(__file__)
    cur_path = os.path.abspath(cur_path)
    pos = cur_path.rfind('meituan/server')
    assert(pos > 0)

    return cur_path[:pos]

def get_mclouds_scripts_path():
    return os.path.join(get_mclouds_root(), 'meituan/scripts')

def get_mclouds_workspace_path():
    root_path = get_mclouds_root()
    if pyinstaller.is_packaged():
        root_path = '/opt/cloud/'

    return os.path.join(root_path, 'workspace')


chroot 可以实现安全隔离,从新制造一个新的根目录,并且程序只对该目新的根目录具有权限,其他目录对该进程就不可见了。从而实现安全隔离,但是如果程序还想要访问其他的库,命令,需要组织根目录,把相应的库文件放到相应的目录下面,可以用 busybox实现这个功能。就是有制造出一个linux系统资源目录出来给某个进程使用,类似容器隔离技术。

import os, sys
newroot = '/Users/kiki/tmp'
if not os.path.exists(newroot):
print __file__
print os.getcwd()
print os.path.abspath(__file__)

argparse 中 metavar 不能和action=store_true 同时用。

# User Instructions
# Write a function best_wild_hand(hand) that takes as
# input a 7-card hand and returns the best 5 card hand.
# In this problem, it is possible for a hand to include
# jokers. Jokers will be treated as 'wild cards' which
# can take any rank or suit of the same color. The 
# black joker, '?B', can be used as any spade or club
# and the red joker, '?R', can be used as any heart 
# or diamond.
# The itertools library may be helpful. Feel free to 
# define multiple functions if it helps you solve the
# problem. 
# -----------------
# Grading Notes
# Muliple correct answers will be accepted in cases 
# where the best hand is ambiguous (for example, if 
# you have 4 kings and 3 queens, there are three best
# hands: 4 kings along with any of the three queens).

import itertools

black_cards = [r + s for r in '23456789TJQKA' for s in 'SC']
red_cards = [r + s for r in '23456789TJQKA' for s in 'HD']

def best_hand(hand):
    return max(itertools.combinations(hand, 5), key=hand_rank)

def replacements(card):
    if card == '?B':
        return black_cards
    elif card == '?R':
        return red_cards
        return [card]

def best_wild_hand(hand):
    "Try all values for jokers in all 5-card selections."
    all_hands = [best_hand(hand) 
                for hand in itertools.product(*map(replacements, hand))]
    return max(all_hands, key=hand_rank)
    # Your code here

def test_best_wild_hand():
    assert (sorted(best_wild_hand("6C 7C 8C 9C TC 5C ?B".split()))
            == ['7C', '8C', '9C', 'JC', 'TC'])
    assert (sorted(best_wild_hand("TD TC 5H 5C 7C ?R ?B".split()))
            == ['7C', 'TC', 'TD', 'TH', 'TS'])
    assert (sorted(best_wild_hand("JD TC TH 7C 7D 7S 7H".split()))
            == ['7C', '7D', '7H', '7S', 'JD'])
    return 'test_best_wild_hand passes'

# ------------------
# Provided Functions
# You may want to use some of the functions which
# you have already defined in the unit to write 
# your best_hand function.

def hand_rank(hand):
    "Return a value indicating the ranking of a hand."
    ranks = card_ranks(hand) 
    if straight(ranks) and flush(hand):
        return (8, max(ranks))
    elif kind(4, ranks):
        return (7, kind(4, ranks), kind(1, ranks))
    elif kind(3, ranks) and kind(2, ranks):
        return (6, kind(3, ranks), kind(2, ranks))
    elif flush(hand):
        return (5, ranks)
    elif straight(ranks):
        return (4, max(ranks))
    elif kind(3, ranks):
        return (3, kind(3, ranks), ranks)
    elif two_pair(ranks):
        return (2, two_pair(ranks), ranks)
    elif kind(2, ranks):
        return (1, kind(2, ranks), ranks)
        return (0, ranks)

def card_ranks(hand):
    "Return a list of the ranks, sorted with higher first."
    ranks = ['--23456789TJQKA'.index(r) for r, s in hand]
    ranks.sort(reverse = True)
    return [5, 4, 3, 2, 1] if (ranks == [14, 5, 4, 3, 2]) else ranks

def flush(hand):
    "Return True if all the cards have the same suit."
    suits = [s for r,s in hand]
    return len(set(suits)) == 1

def straight(ranks):
    """Return True if the ordered 
    ranks form a 5-card straight."""
    return (max(ranks)-min(ranks) == 4) and len(set(ranks)) == 5

def kind(n, ranks):
    """Return the first rank that this hand has 
    exactly n-of-a-kind of. Return None if there 
    is no n-of-a-kind in the hand."""
    for r in ranks:
        if ranks.count(r) == n: return r
    return None

def two_pair(ranks):
    """If there are two pair here, return the two 
    ranks of the two pairs, else None."""
    pair = kind(2, ranks)
    lowpair = kind(2, list(reversed(ranks)))
    if pair and lowpair != pair:
        return (pair, lowpair)
        return None